From Water To Ice: Lessons for students


Water is a substance which is denoted by the chemical formula H2O. Essential for all forms of life, water covers approximately 70 percent of the Earth’s surface. Water exists in three states, namely, solid, liquid, and gas. Let’s look at these states of water in more detail.

Solid

At temperature below the freezing point, water becomes a solid. Some examples of water in the solid state are snow, ice, frost, ice cubes, and icicles. In the solid state, the water molecules are bunched closely together so it does not change its shape. The volume of solid water is fixed according to the shape of the solid.

  • It’s Just a Phase: In this exercise, students would explore the three physical states of water by constructing models of water molecules.
  • Ice & Snow: The lesson shows how water is stored as ice and snow on Earth.
  • Faces of Antarctica: An interactive module which allows students to explore Antarctica.
  • How Cold Can Water Get?: The page provides answers to the question.
  • Salt & Freezing Point: A look at how salt can alter the freezing point of water.
  • Water Freezing: Come here to learn about whether cold water or hot water freezes faster.
  • Melting & Freezing: A good place to learn about the melting, freezing, and boiling points of water.

Liquid

Between the freezing and boiling point, water becomes a liquid. Most of the water found on Earth is in the liquid state. Some examples are oceans, rivers, rain, drinking water, and water coming out of a tap. In the liquid state, the water molecules are randomly arranged so liquid water takes the shape of the container. It has a fixed volume and free surface in gravitational field.

  • Phases of Matter: Provides a great overview of the three states of water.
  • States of Water: A good discourse on the different states of water.
  • Changes in State: A more scientific description of the physical states of water.
  • Surface Tension: Offers information on the surface tension of water.
  • Water Cycle: The diagrams explain how water becomes rain, and vice versa.
  • Chemistry of Water: Excellent description of the chemical nature of water.
  • Special Report: An interactive lesson which focuses on properties of water, forms of water, and more.

Gas

Above the boiling point, water becomes a gas, and it’s known as water vapor. This process is called evaporation. Water in the gas state is colorless and odorless. The molecular structure of water in the gas state is very weak and the water molecules are far apart. This is why water vapor takes both the volume and the shape of the container. 

  • Boiling Point: Excellent explanation of how liquid water turns into gas.
  • The Gaseous State: An overview of the gaseous state with tests at the end.
  • Evaporation: Describes the process of evaporation in animated diagrams.
  • Evaporation of Water: A more scientific explanation of the process.
  • Condensation: In this lesson, students would learn about clouds, and how are clouds made.
  • The Water Cycle: Provides information on evaporation, rain, snow, mountains & ice, rivers & streams, and oceans.



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